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時代講場文章(至2017年2月14日)

追溯西方大學內紀律處分的起源:〈聖本篤院規〉

延續著前三文有關大學未來的探索,本文將提出現今西方大學內的紀律處分程序實源自〈聖本篤院規〉(The Rule of St. Benedict)的看法。我會主要從比較兩者的相同之處入手,再提出現今西方大學內紀律程序中蘊含的「憐憫悔改文化」(culture of mercy-repentance)實源自基督教的看法。

憐憫悔改文化的始源:〈聖本篤院規〉

如果碰到有大學人員犯錯,一般具規模的西方大學都有清晰內部指引,指示大學管理人員須要按照甚麼樣的程序去處理。於英國大學之内,除非涉案人仕所犯的過失已被校外人員或團體機構以書面提出正式投訴,大學並不會立即考慮以「免職」(dismissal)和有關的調查程序和手段去處理犯錯人員。

一般來說,將犯錯人員免職的基準是要求該人士已被判有刑事罪行、或已被裁定犯下不道德、具醜聞性、可恥的和不名譽的行為,和持續出現與職份不相符的不恰當行為等。所以,在英國的大學,除非事件已被公開而導致損害了大學的校譽,大學一般都會根據一般内部具保密性的紀律程序去處理事件。其實這些有關程序文件亦很容易被公眾在英國的大學互聯網上找到。1 一般紀律程序包括以下具保密性的步驟:2

一、初犯錯誤先須由該犯錯人員的直屬上司以「非正式討論」(informal discussion)私底下向涉案人員了解內情和進行非正式警戒。
二、如有再犯,涉案人員將被給予正式「口頭警告」(oral warning)。警告只會於犯錯人員的人事檔案內存放十二個月。
三、如有三犯,犯錯人員將被給予「書面警告」(written warning)。該警告會被存檔兩年。
四、如有四犯,校方便可進行「免職」的有關正式調查和投訴程序。

但是,基於憐憫,犯錯者也可以隨時提出上訴。

可見,程序的目的是去指引執行紀律處分的人員要按步就班地去將處分行動漸進提昇,並不能跳步。由於調查會由獨立第三方人士進行,加上有工會的介入和監察,若然被發現跳步,執行紀律處分者也可能會面對紀律處分。其實,這種漸進式的機密紀律處分程序是不斷去給予人反省自己和改過的機會。

由於程序保密,犯錯者便有幾次機會去反省自己的錯誤,從而改過。這種憐憫改過文化特色已一早被〈聖本篤院規〉所反映到。例如,「第二十三章:應受絕罰的過失」(Chapter 23: Excommunication for Faults)便提到如何處理修士所犯過失的程序:

‘If a brother is found to be stubborn or disobedient or proud, if he grumbles or in any way despises the holy rule and defies the orders of his seniors, he should be warned twice privately by the seniors, in accord with our Lord’s injunction (Matthew 18:15-16). If he does not amend, he must be rebuked publicly in the presence of everyone. But if even then he does not perform, let him be excommunicated, provided that he understands the nature of this punishment. If however he lacks understanding, let him undergo corporal punishment.’

(「如果發現有任何弟兄,或頑固、或抗命、或驕傲、或抱怨、或習慣性的違返某條會規,且藐視長輩的命令,長輩應該依照吾主的訓示,私下勸告他二次(馬太福音十八章15-16節)。如果他還不能改正,就讓他在眾弟兄前,受到公開的譴責。若他還不肯悔過自新,就將他和眾人隔離起來,但是他該懂得這種處罰的嚴重性。假如他仍是剛愎自用,就施以體罰。」)3

而且,於「第四十六章:在其他事上犯過的人」(Chapter 46: Faults Committed in Other Matters),聖本篤再一次提出過失須於不公開之下去處理,犯錯者的創傷才可被治療:

‘If someone commits a fault while at any work – while working in the kitchen, in the storeroom, in the serving, in the bakery, in the garden, in any craft or anywhere else – either by breaking or losing something or failing in any other way in any other place, he must at once come before the abbot and community and of his own accord admit his fault and make satisfaction. If it is made known through another, he is to be subjected to a more severe correction. When the cause of the sin lies hidden in his conscience, he is to reveal it only to the abbot or to one of the spiritual elders, who know how to heal their own wounds as well as those of others, without exposing them and making them public.

(「當弟兄們在廚房、工廠、烤麵包房、花園或其他任何場所工作,或從事某種工藝時,犯了過失,損壞東西、遺失東西,或其他方面犯規矩,若他不立即自動到院主持和眾人面前承認過錯,並做補贖,後來被發現,應讓他受較嚴厲的處罰。若他所犯的心靈罪過是隱密的,那麼他只需闡明院主持或屬靈導師,因為他們知道如何治療自己和別人的創傷,而不將之洩漏或公開。」) 4

結語

由此可見,現今西方大學的紀律處分程序除了改正行為之外,保密的原則給予改過空間和機會給予犯錯人員。我認為這種深層的憐憫侮改文化可被追溯到中世紀時的天主教修道院制度。而〈聖本篤院規〉則提供了一些線索。

(作者為英國巴斯大學政治、語言與國際研究學系副教授)

http://christiantimes.org.hk,時代論壇時代講場,2016.10.12)



1. For example, see: Clauses 25.4 & 25.5, ‘The Statutes of the University’, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom. URL: http://www.bath.ac.uk/about/pdfs/StatutesAug14.pdf

2. Clause 25.13, ‘The Statutes of the University’, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom. URL: http://www.bath.ac.uk/about/pdfs/StatutesAug14.pdf

3. Timothy Fry O.S.B. (1981). The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English Notes. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press. Chapter 23: Excommunication for Faults. (Chinese translation is available in the blog of the Oblates of St. Benedictine Sisters, Tamshui, Taiwan. URL: http://stbenedictineoblatestw.blogspot.co.uk/2009/02/229-1-2-1516-3-4-5.html)

4.Timothy Fry O.S.B. (1981). The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English Notes. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press. Chapter 46: Faults Committed in Other Matters. See also: Appendix 4: P. 420. (Chinese translation is available in the blog of the Oblates of St. Benedictine Sisters, Tamshui, Taiwan. URL: http://stbenedictineoblatestw.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/1-2-3-4-5-6.html)

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